Rooting is the process of allowing users of smartphones, tablets and other devices running the Android mobile operating system to attain privileged control (known as root access) over various Android subsystems. As Android uses the Linux kernel, rooting an Android device gives similar access to administrative (superuser) permissions as on Linux or any other Unix-like operating system such as FreeBSD or OS X.
Rooting is often performed with the goal of overcoming limitations that carriers and hardware manufacturers put on some devices. Thus, rooting gives the ability (or permission) to alter or replace system applications and settings, run specialized applications (“apps”) that require administrator-level permissions, or perform other operations that are otherwise inaccessible to a normal Android user. On Android, rooting can also facilitate the complete removal and replacement of the device’s operating system, usually with a more recent release of its current operating system.
Root access is sometimes compared to jailbreaking devices running the Apple iOS operating system. However, these are different concepts: Jailbreaking is the bypass of several types of Apple prohibitions for the end user, including modifying the operating system (enforced by a “locked bootloader”), installing non-officially approved applications via sideloading, and granting the user elevated administration-level privileges (rooting). Only a minority of Android devices lock their bootloaders, and many vendors such as HTC, Sony, Asus and Google explicitly provide the ability to unlock devices, and even replace the operating system entirely. Similarly, the ability to sideload applications is typically permissible on Android devices without root permissions. Thus, it is primarily the third aspect of iOS jailbreaking (giving users administrative privileges) that most directly correlates to Android rooting.
Advantages of rooting include the possibility for complete control over the look and feel of the device. As a superuser has access to the device’s system files, all aspects of the operating system can be customized with the only real limitation being the level of coding expertise. Immediately expectable advantages of rooted devices include the following:
Support for themes, allowing everything to be visually changed from the color of the battery icon, to the boot animation that appears while the device is booting, and more.
Full control of the kernel, which, for example, allows overclocking and underclocking the CPU and GPU.
Full application control, including the ability to backup, restore, or batch edit applications, or to remove bloatware that comes pre-installed on many phones.
Custom automated system-level processes through the use of third-party applications.
Ability to install a custom firmware (also known as a custom ROM) that allows additional levels of control on a rooted device.
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